What is an E-cigarette and How Do They Work

Lately, there has been a buzz for e-cigarettes so that many brands have cropped up and a lot of young people have taken to it. E-cigarettes are also known as e-cigs, vaporizer cigarettes, or vape pens. It is a battery-operated handheld device that can help in emitting vaporized nicotine or even, non-nicotine solutions. It provides a similar feeling to that of conventional tobacco cigarette albeit without the smoke and many harmful chemicals that are usually associated with tobacco smoke.

What is an E-cigarette and How Do They Work

Usage of e-cigarettes is also called ‘vaping,’ and it is consistently increasing in the US. Mostly teenagers are getting attracted to the concept, and between 2011 and 2015, its prevalence grew by more than 900 percent in the country. In the following sections, we take a look at the different aspects of e-cigarettes that is gaining much popularity throughout the world.

  • Some useful facts on e-cigarettes – Some e-cigarette manufacturers market the product as a perfect remedy for quitting tobacco smoke. However, the fact remains that fully using e-cigarettes instead of tobacco cigarette can be helpful for quitting. Anyway, many people do continue to use both of them, and that may not help to quit. Health authorities are now trying to discourage youngsters who like to vape by making stronger regulations. It is because e-cigarettes resemble conventional cigarettes and may have health implications through continued usage.
  • What actually is an e-cigarette?

An e-cigarette may look like a long tube and can be quite similar to a cigarette, pipe, pen or a cigar. Most of them are reusable and comes with a refillable and replaceable cartridge. However, some of them are also of disposable types so that one can use and throw the pen after an operation. As of date, there are more than 450 brands available in the market.

  • How Do They Work?

When a user inhales using the mouthpiece, the heating element vaporizes the e-liquid Australia solution in the cartridge and the aerosol converts into a vapor that is exhaled for satisfaction. The nicotine content in an e-cigarette can vary from nil to “extra high.” The ‘extra high” strength refers from 24 to 36 mg per mL. Almost all types of e-cigarettes consist of the following four components – a cartridge, a rechargeable battery, a heating element, and electronic circuitry. The individual components are described here for complete understanding.

  • The cartridge – A cartridge is a fixed piece in a tube’s end. In the cartridge, there is an absorbent material soaked in liquid solution within a small plastic cup. A cartridge can also come as a refillable option or can be replaced fully after use.
  • Rechargeable battery – The heating element is powered through a Li-ion battery which is rechargeable. It is the component that keeps the device going at all times and place.
  • Heating element – The heating element is also known as the atomizer and it helps in heating the e-liquid so that vapor can be produced from it.
  • Electronic circuits – The electronic circuit consists of the sensor that helps in triggering the heater on sucking from the cartridge.

In addition to all the above components, there is an e-liquid that helps in the vapor formation. It is usually a nicotine extract mixed with a base and flavoring. The base of an e-liquid can be Propylene Glycol (PG) or Vegetable Glycerin (VG). PG is the same base that is also used in asthma inhalers.…

What Are the Pros and Cons of Internships?

Internships allow students to get experience working in the industry which they have chosen as a career. There are a number of things which cannot be taught in college or by going through case studies or by being lectured. These are the practical aspects of working, the work environment and interpersonal skills. This is one huge way in which students benefit by undertaking an internship program.

What Are the Pros and Cons of Internships

Advantages of an internship

Those who undertake an internship at PGP Australia, get an opportunity to work in the field which they have chosen and they become a stronger candidate for the job after they graduate.

Working in an internship program allows the student to try out the career which they have chosen for themselves and to evaluate as well as to see if that is the right career choice for them. It gives the student valuable insight in choosing their career path.

These internships could also give the student’s course credits. Usually, the college will consider a 3-month internship to be equivalent to getting full course credit.

There are different kind of internships. Some companies may offer a full-time job to the interns who are exceptional or have proved to be invaluable or have been found to be proactive in their approach and an asset to the company. This, however, does not guarantee that all the interns will be eventually absorbed by the company, but the chances of getting a job in the same company or even in the same industry are increased manifold times once they have an internship.

Companies like to hire those who have taken up an internship as the student is aware of working in a team and would already have picked up the skills which are required. Thus they are seen as employees who will have a much shorter learning curve as compared to a fresher.

Cons of taking up an internship

The intern has a variety of duties which  he or she will be expected to perform during the period of the internship. Most of the tasks will be repetitive, boring and mundane work as well as the running of errands so that the actual employees of the company can be assigned to more creative projects.

After running errands and doing administrative tasks such as filing or a photocopying, the remainder of the time the interns would be expected to contribute to the company in terms of applying the skills and techniques which they have learnt in the college to the real world, as they are most updated with regard newest breakthroughs in the field.

Internships even paid ones do not pay well, and the amount which is offered to an intern is usually much lesser than the payment made to full-time employees. Interns too do not have medical and most other facilities which are offered to employees.

Since they are technically not employees, they are usually more exploited and harassed, and there are lesser rules and laws which apply to their protection.…

The Answer To Stress: What Is It?

How do the body and mind react to stress: We all go through periods of stress at some point in our lives. Stress affects us in different aspects of our daily lives and may even end up conditioning us. However,  do we know what the stress response is?

Stress occurs when cumulative wear occurs in different systems of our body after a prolonged or poorly regulated response. The allostatic charge is the price the body must pay when it is forced to adapt to adverse circumstances.

For this not to happen,  our bodies have processes of adaptation that they put in motion in the face of stressful situations. They are intended to restore balance or homeostasis.

Thus, the body always tries to return to a stable state after experiencing imbalances in its homeostasis. But how does this process work in the body?

The Stress Response

When the body detects stress, the body sets up a series of physiological and metabolic changes to adapt. Thus, these changes that the body realizes appear, for example, when we do physical exercise. They also enable us to better assess the situation by increasing our vigilance, our state of alert and our decision-making.

Faced with the onset of stress, the first system that activates is the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The hypothalamus is responsible for starting this system, which integrates information from sensory and visceral pathways.

The hypothalamus then activates the paraventricular nucleus,  which enables the pre-ganglion neurons of the spinal cord. The latter in turn activate the sympathetic ganglionic chain that increases norepinephrine in the innervated organs.

Effects of increased noradrenaline release in the stress response

Increased contraction force and heart rate.

Vasodilation of the coronary arteries.

Relaxation of the branchial musculature and increase of the respiratory rate.

Peripheral vasoconstriction.

Hepatic glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown).


Activation of the sympathetic ganglionic chain also activates the marrow of the adrenal glands. This increases the release of adrenaline, in addition to norepinephrine.

These last two starts non-innervated structures through the sympathetic nervous system. They also reinforce the effects previously produced by norepinephrine.

Effects of adrenaline release increase

Increased rate and strength of cardiac contraction.

Muscular vasodilation and heart.

Dilatation of the airways  (which facilitates pulmonary ventilation).

Contributes to the generation of sweat (dissipates heat).

The decrease in non-vital physiological processes in the short term (inflammation, digestion, reproduction, and growth).

Stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis  (glucose production).

Inhibits the secretion of insulin and stimulates that of glucagon in the pancreas (high glucose levels).

Moreover, following the action of norepinephrine, the salivary glands secrete an oral enzyme called alpha-amylase. This enzyme cares for the digestion of carbohydrates and is responsible for eliminating and preventing bacteria in the mouth.

Neural Control Of The Stress Response

To record the response, two possible paths are depending on the stimulus that occurs: the systemic path and the procedural path.

Systemic Way

At first, stimuli do not require conscious processing.

These are usually physiological threats (such as illnesses, for example).

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus activates directly.

Procedural way

Stimuli require conscious treatment.

They do not involve an immediate danger.

Indirect activation of the paraventricular nucleus.

As we see,  the stress response is defined with the start of many processes. Through these, the body tries to maintain a balance to counteract the undesirable effects of stress. This shows us, once again, that nature is very well done.